For more great articles be sure to subscribe to Military History magazine today! The Persians invaded Greece and had initial success before finally coming unstuck at the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC. At that point, however, a Greek traitor named Ephialtes gained an audience with the great king and offered to show his soldiers an alternate route over the mountains that would allow them to attack the Spartans form the rear. If he Had conquered it, the Europe would have a different culture -- His advice to Xerxes. He ordered the designers of those bridges executed and that the Hellespont itself be given 300 lashes as punishment. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The shores and reefs were strewn with corpses. Find all the books, read about the author, and more. Whereas Darius had treated Egypt and Babylonia as kingdoms personally united to the Achaemenian Empire (though administered as satrapies), Xerxes acted with a new intransigence. Xerxes had watched the Ionians perform well and ordered the Phoenicians beheaded for lying about their allies. Xerxes I is notable in Western history for his failed in His forces temporarily overran mainland Greece north of the Isthmus of Corinth until losses at Salamis and Plataea a year later reversed these gains and ended the second invasion decisively. Counselors of Xerxes. The formation was widened in order to minimize the risk of being outflanked, and as the phalanx reached a distance of about 100 yards from the Persian line, the hoplites broke into a double-quick pace that took the enemy archers by surprise. -- His advice to Xerxes. Estimates of his forces are ridiculously overblown. Without a fleet to take supplies to the army, he had to retreat; he crossed over into Asia, leaving Mardonius in Thessaly. Xerxes, who actually led the invasion. Second, the famed historian Herodotus states, the Greeks had never even been able to hold their own in battle against the Persians before. Stephenie Meyer, author best known for her young-adult, vampire romance series Twilight. Leonidas had detached about 1,000 men from Pohocia to hard his back door, but when the Phocians saw the Persian legion advancing upon them in the gathering light they took to their heels. This abridged excerpt from Herodotus' The Histories is an interesting read. Although lengthening the flanks served its purpose, it also weakened the Greek center where, according to Herodotus, the invaders held the upper hand and actually broke the Greek line, chasing the survivors inland from the shore. In the summer of 479 BC the combined armies of Athens and Sparta forced him northward toward Thebes and decisively defeated the Persian army at Plataea in September. His father King Darius invaded what is modern-day Greece in 492 B.C. Therefore, the names of Marathon, Thermopylae and Salamis are remembered with reverence. According to this account, what are the differences between the Greeks and the Persians? A small Greek fleet lured his enormous navy into the strait at Salamis, where they rammed his ships to pieces in the cramped space. On his accession to the throne, Xerxes was faced by revolts in both Egypt and Babylonia. We are now at 480 BCE, where Xerxes is going to try to invade Greece by land and by sea, but … Then, the Greek navy defeated the Persian navy, including 200 Egyptian Triremes (a warship with three banks of oars), at the Battle of Salamis.After the navy’s defeat, Xerxes I retreated from the Greek mainland, leaving part of his infantry behind. 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